Verdoofd slachten in Islam: mag het of niet?

June 29, 2011
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Ik respecteer de godsdienstvrijheid van alle mensen, dus ook die van de joden en de moslims. In deze analyse ga ik niet in op de vraag of ritueel slachten ethisch verantwoord is of niet; ik tracht de mythe te ontkrachten dat verdoofd slachten verboden is in de Islam.

Op een islamitisch website over halal slachten staat het volgende onder de vraag, “Is verdoving van dieren tijdens het slachten Halal?

Antwoord:

De basis bij het islamitisch slachten is dat het dier wordt geslacht zonder enige vorm van verdoving. Maar veel islamgeleerde geven aan dat bepaalde verdoving toegestaan is in bijzondere gevallen waarin sprake is van onmacht en/of dat de kwaliteit of dierenwelzijn van het dier in het geding is. In alle gevallen dient de verdoving REVERSIBEL te zijn, een waarborg waarin het leven van het dier na de verdoving keerbaar moet zijn.

Dat klinkt heel vaag, dus ik besloot op onderzoek uit te gaan. Een van de beste bronnen blijkt een blog te zijn met verwijzing naar een “fatwa”. Ik heb de belangrijkste stukken hieronder overgenomen.

In de introductie wordt uitgelegd dat er een misverstand heerst over verdoven van slachtvee (nadruk in dikke letters is van mij):

The stunning of animals for halal meat was until recently a non-issue. However, over the past few years many people have mistakenly been informed that stunning animals renders the meat as haram. This is a complete fallacy. As with most things in Islam there are differences of opinion.

The origins of this fallacy originate from a certain halal food authority that has decided not to certify any company that uses meat from stunned animals. On closer inspection of their position it is clear that they are simply implementing this policy as a “caution”. They do not state, and can not state, that the meat from stunned animals is haram. This is because it is well documented that meat of stunned animals is completely halal under certain conditions.

Hier volgt de meest belangrijke zin van de introductie:

Scholars of fiqh, the people who understand, interpret and explain the shariah, are more or less unanimous that the meat of stunned animals is halal.

Er wordt dus beweerd dat er onder de meeste geleerden uit de meeste stromingen  een consensus heerst dat verdoofd slachten is toegestaan.

De auteur vervolgt met een samenvatting van de fatwa.  Ik gebruik hier onder echter een langer fragment uit deze Fatwah. De aanleiding van deze fatwa was immers een vraag, gesteld door de eigenaar van een bedrijf in Engeland dat dieren ritueel slacht.

I have a company dealing in meat in Britain and we are prohibited from slaughtering before stunning the animal. The stunning is carried out by exposing the animal to an electric shock which causes it not to feel the pain of the slaughter. The effects of the shock last twenty seconds, and then the animal returns to its natural state. Some Muslims doubt whether this method is lawful (halal) so my question is: is this method lawful?

Het antwoord (samengevat):

Exposing the animal to an electric shock is unlawful in itself. As for the legality of the meat if the situation is as the questioner described – that the animal recovers and returns to its natural state twenty seconds after having been stunned – then it is lawful (halal) even the animal is in a lifeless state at the time of slaughter (such that it cannot see or hear and is unable to move). This is because the shock in itself is not a cause of the animal’s death.

However, if the animal does not usually return to its natural state after being stunned then the meat is unlawful unless one is reasonably certain that the animal is alive at the time of slaughter, evidence of which would be things such as violent movement, the gushing or spurting of blood or a sound coming from the throat or any other signs. It is not necessary to be absolutely certain that the animal is still alive because what is required by the Sacred Law in this instance is that there be some signs of life in the animal at the time of slaughter . However if one is unsure whether the animal is alive or not at the time of slaughter the meat would then be unlawful.”

Hiermee wordt dus beweerd dat het verdoofd slachten toegestaan is mits:

1. De verdoving tijdelijk is en op zichzelf niet dodelijk.

2. Het dier nog leeft tijdens de slacht, alhoewel het misschien levenloos lijkt (de verdoofde staat)

Conclusie: Het dier verdoven is dus alleen ontoelaatbaar als het dier door de verdoving zelf komt te overlijden.

 

De auteur geeft daarna nog een groot aantal andere bronnen waaruit blijkt dat verdoofd slachten toch halal kan zijn:

Excerpt from “Animals in Islam” by Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri

“The main counsel of Islam in the slaughter of animals for food is to do it in the least painful manner. All the Islamic laws on the treatment of animals, including the method of slaughter, are based in all conscience on “the spirit” of compassion, fellow-feeling and benevolence:

“Allah, Who is Blessed and Exalted, has prescribed benevolence toward everything and has ordained that everything be done in the right way; so when you must kill a living being, do it in the proper way – when you slaughter an animal, use the best method and sharpen your knife so as to cause as little pain as possible.” (The Sahih Mulsim, 2:156. Also Al-Taaj fi Jaami al-Usool, Vol. 3, p. 110, Cairo Edition. Also Al-Faruo min-al-Kafi, p. 2, and others.)

Failure to stun animals before slaughter causes them pain and suffering. Muslims should give serious thought to whether this is cruelty (Al-Muthiah). If so, then surely the meat from them is unlawful (Haram), or at least, undesirable to eat (Makruh).

Al-Azhar University in Cairo appointed a special committee to decide whether the meat of animals slaughtered after stunning was lawful. The committee consisted of representatives of the four acknowledged Schools of Thought in Islam, i.e. Shafii, Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali. The unanimous verdict (Fatwa) of the committee was:

“Muslim countries, by approving the modern method of slaughtering, have no religious objection in their way. This is lawful as long as the new means are ‘shar’ (Ahadd) and clean and do ’cause bleeding’ (Museelah al-damm). If new means of slaughtering are more quick and sharp, their employment is a more desirable thing. It comes under the saying of the Prophet(s) ‘God has ordered us to be kind to everything’ (Inna’l-laha Kataba-‘l-ihsan ‘ala kulle Shay’in).”(The History of Azhar, Cairo; 1964; pp. 361-363).”

To crown all verdicts (Fatawa), here is the ‘Recommendation’ of a pre-eminent Muslim organization of this century – The Muslim World League (Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami). It was founded in Makkah al-Mukarramah in 1962 A.C. (1382 A.H.) with 55 Muslim theologians (Ulama’a), scientists and leaders on its Constituent Council from all over the world. MWL is a member of the United Nations, UNESCO and the UNICEF. In January 1986 it held a joint meeting with the World Health Organization (WHO) and made the following ‘Recommendation’ about pre-slaughter stunning (No 3:1. WHO-EM/FOS/1-E, p. 8):

“Pre-slaughter stunning by electric shock, if proven to lessen the animal’s suffering, is lawful, provided that it is carried out with the weakest electric current that directly renders the animal unconscious, and that it neither leads to the animal’s death nor renders its meat harmful to the consumer.”

Egyptian fatwa Committee, December 18th 1978

“If the electro narcosis of the animal or any other anaesthetic procedure helps bleed the animal while weakening its resistance during the bleeding, and if this electro narcosis has no effect on its life (that is to say, if the animal comes back to normal life if the bleeding does not take place) it is allowed to resort to electro narcosis or any other similar type of anaesthetic procedure before the bleeding. The meat of the animal bled in that way is licit”

Sheikh al-Hassan bin Al-Siddiq, president of Belguim’s Islamic Coincil of Ulama

“We (the Muslims) do not view ‘direct slaughter’ (the traditional Islamic method) as being unkind to animals, Nevertheless, Islam does not prohibit pre-stunning when necessary. as long as the animal does not die (from the stunning),”

Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

“As for stunning the animal, it does not make the animal dead, for it is intended only to knock the animal unconscious so that it does not feel pain and it is brought under control. This itself does not render the animal impure and unlawful unless it is dead before slaughter. My own experience with the slaughterhouses is that they do not make use of animals that are already dead before slaughter. Inspectors, who are appointed by the government (in countries such as Canada), do make sure that this is not the case.

As far as the wisdom of stunning is concerned, it is really in conformity with the wisdom established in the Prophetic hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said, “Allah has prescribed excellence and compassion in all things, so when you kill, kill well; when you slaughter, slaughter well, and let him sharpen his knife and spare the animal pain.”

In conclusion, we are definitely allowed to partake of such meat, especially if we do not find meat provided by Muslims.”

Sheikh Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Ash-Shinqiti, Director of the Islamic Center of South Plains, Lubbock, Texas

“As for the claims by some scholars that a lot of these animals die as a result of being stunned before having their jugular vein slit; I conducted research on this subject and found that these claims are baseless. This is so because the reports by the general inspector of the US Government confirmed that a lot of animals do not get affected by the stunning so when they are slaughtered, they still experience pain.

Muslim scholars who forbid the consumption of beef based their argument on the assumption that stunning kills the animal before their jugular vein is slit. This is not true according to the report released by the general inspector.”

Except from The Department of Islamic Development Malaysia’s guidelines to halal slaughter

“5.3 STUNNING OF ANIMALS

Stunning of animals prior to slaughter is permitted and shall be in accordance with the requirements below :

5.3.1 Three types of stunners shall be used to stun the animal, namely electrical, mechanical or pneumatic stunner.

5.3.2 The use of the stunning equipment shall be under the control of a Muslim supervisor or a trained Muslim slaughterman or Halal certification authority at all times.

5.3.3 The animal should only be stunned temporarily. The stunning should not either kill or cause permanent injury to the animal.

5.3.4 Gadgets that are used to stun pigs shall not be used to stun animals for Halal slaughter.”

Hierna volgt de conclusie, in niet mis te verstane woorden:

If after reading this one still believes that stunning an animal (temporarily) renders meat as inedible for being haram, then this is their choice. However, to call it haram and to tell others it is haram flies in the face of logic, reason, the ulema and Islam.

Dus de lieden op fora zoals Islam 786 zijn niet op de hoogte en nuanceren niet.

UPDATE: Van lezer @afrikaano kreeg ik een link naar een Nederlandse fatwa dat de analyse ondersteunt. Onder andere:

Het verdoven kan geen kwaad als hij het dier slacht zolang het nog leeft. Dit kan geen kwaad, maar er mag geen sprake zijn van kwelling. Het verdoven kan geen kwaad, maar kwellen door (het dier) te slaan met een stok of een hamer op het hoofd of iets dergelijks, of met een pistool, dat hij het inschiet met een pistool, dit is kwelling dat niet is toegestaan. Maar dat hij (degene die slacht) het (dier) verdooft met iets waardoor het makkelijk te slachten is voor de slager, zonder dat het dier wordt gekweld, en dat hij het dier slacht vóórdat het sterft zonder twijfel, dan kan dit geen kwaad.

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